Achaemenid Empire (550-330 B.C.) 16/10/2018




550 BC : The Persian Empire, the first major Indo-European power, is established by Cyrus the Great
549 BC : Armenia becomes a Persian satrapy after 63 years under the kings of Media
546 BC : Cyprus defeats Croesus, king of Lydia
539 BC : Cyrus conquers Babylon and Syria
537 BC : Cyris campaigns west of Indus River
529 BC : Cyrus dies, leaving as his legacy the largest empire known to that date;  he is suceeded by his son Cambyses II.
525 BC  : Cambyses conquers Egypt, but dies on his way home from Egypt.
521 BC : 'False Smerdis' is killed in battle by Darius I, who becomes a new Achaemenid king
518 BC : Begining of Persepolis construction
490-479 BC : Persian-Greek wars
490 BC : Battle of Marathon, won by the Greeks
470 BC : A combined Greek army stops the Persians at the Battle of Plataea
355-323 BC : The life of Alexander the Great
336 BC : Alexander inherits the throne of Macedonia and all of Greece, and begins his campain in Asia
333 BC : Alexander wins the Battle of Issus over the Persians
331 BC : The Battle of Arbela (Gaugamela) in northern Mesopotamia gives Alexander the Great teh decisive victory over Darius III
330 BC : Darius III is murdered by his satrap Bessus; Alexander becomes master of the Persian Empire

Important Achamenid Kings :
Cyrus II, the great : 559-530 BC
Cambysus II : 530-522 BC
Darius I, the great : 522-486 BC
Xerexes I : 486-465 BC
Artaxerxes I : 465-425 BC
Darius III : 336-330 BC

Median Empire Territories


Cyrus the Great was the first important Achaemenid ruler. By the time he became king, Persia was already a large domain, but Cyrus aspired to nothing less than the conquest of the entire known world. In a campaign that lasted for less than two years, he took Elam, Media, Lydia, and several Greek cities on the Ionian coast. Having strengthened his power, Cyrus besieged and captured Babylon and released the Jews who had been held captive there, thus earning immortality in the Book of Isaiah. His territories in the east also were great and stretched as far as the Hindu Kush in present-day Afghanistan. Cyrus was a world conqueror unlike any other. Not only Persians but even Greeks held him in the sentiments of esteem and even awe, and it was no accident that Xenophon praised Cyrus as an ideal monarch. Cyrus died in battle, while putting down a revolt, and was buried in Pasargadae, the capital he had founded. Cyrus's son and successor, Cambyses II, was less successful. However, he managed to invade Egypt and create the dynasty of Persian kings there. He was killed (or died of a self-inflicted wound) during a revolt led by a priest, Gaumata, who held the throne until overthrown by a member of a collateral branch of the Achaemenid family, Darius I. Darius I, another "Great" of the Achaemenid dynasty, finished Cyrus's incomplete job of invasion, having conquered Northern India and some parts of Greece, as well as the whole of Asia Minor and parts of southern Europe. He also recaptured Egypt, where he ordered a canal to be dug between the Red and the Mediterranean seas, a forerunner of Suez. He even ventured to the northern Black Sea region, but was thrown back by the Scythians. Darius also attacked the Greek mainland, but as a result of his defeat at the Battle of Marathon was forced to retract the limits of the empire to Asia Minor. Despite this defeat, Darius's empire was the largest the world had ever known, and administering such a gigantic land was quite a challenge. Darius was certainly a man of exceptional farsightedness and the greatest of politicians. One of his amazing achievements was creating the world's first highway network. The stone-paved Royal Road, 2,703 km long, ran from the empire's winter capital at Susa to Ionian Ephesus on the Mediterranean and had 111 stations. Darius is also credited for the introduction of the world's first postal system (band). He coined money (dank), established the institution of political marriage, appointed royal inspectors to be aware of state affairs, and was the first ruler to ask for sons and heirs of the defeated kings as hostages and guarantors of their fathers' loyalty. Other accomplishments of Darius's reign included the codification of data, a universal legal system upon which much of later Iranian law was based, and the construction of a new capital at Persepolis. Trade was extensive and, as a result of this commercial activity, Persian words for typical items of trade became prevalent throughout the Middle East and eventually entered Western languages. Examples in English are bazaar, shawl, tiara, orange, lemon, peach, spinach, and asparagus. After Darius the Great and his successor Xerxes, the Achaemenid power started to decline. The last Achaemenid king, Darius Ill, was overthrown by Alexander the Great. In 330 B.C., the 26-year-old Macedonian conqueror set fire to Persepolis and put a full stop to the Achaemenid rule.

Quick Search
Popular Posts
Bagh-e-Melli
Bagh-e-Melli

29/10/2018


Eram Gardens
Eram Gardens

26/10/2018


Meybod
Meybod

24/10/2018


Golestan Palace
Golestan Palace

15/10/2018


Shahcheragh
Shahcheragh

26/10/2018




Persepolis
Persepolis

26/10/2018


Pasargadae
Pasargadae

25/10/2018



Saadabad Palace
Saadabad Palace

20/10/2018


Shahr-i Sokhta
Shahr-i Sokhta

14/01/2019





Quran Gate
Quran Gate

26/10/2018




Vakil Mosque
Vakil Mosque

26/10/2018




Maymand
Maymand

14/01/2019


Yazd
Yazd

25/10/2018



Takht-e Soleyman
Takht-e Soleyman

05/01/2019


Hafiz Memorial
Hafiz Memorial

26/10/2018


The Nature Bridge
The Nature Bridge

19/10/2018



Vank Cathedral
Vank Cathedral

24/10/2018


Abyaneh Village
Abyaneh Village

22/10/2018




Niavaran Palace
Niavaran Palace

19/10/2018


Fin Gardens
Fin Gardens

20/10/2018




Vakil Bath House
Vakil Bath House

26/10/2018








Vakil Bazaar
Vakil Bazaar

26/10/2018



Yazd Fire Temple
Yazd Fire Temple

25/10/2018


Qavam Mansion
Qavam Mansion

26/10/2018




Yazd Water Museum
Yazd Water Museum

25/10/2018












Soltaniyeh Dome
Soltaniyeh Dome

06/01/2019


Bisotun
Bisotun

06/01/2019


Gonbad-e Qabus
Gonbad-e Qabus

14/01/2019


Bam Citadel
Bam Citadel

06/01/2019


Tchogha Zanbil
Tchogha Zanbil

05/01/2019










Hamedan
Hamedan

25/10/2018


Milad Tower
Milad Tower

20/10/2018


Towers of Silence
Towers of Silence

25/10/2018


Zoorkhaneh Sports
Zoorkhaneh Sports

25/10/2018