Arab Conquest and the Early Iranian Islamic Dynasties (636-1100) 17/10/2018




636  : Arabs defear the Sassanis at Qadesia
637 : Arabs take Ctesiphon
642 : Arabs defeat Sassanids at Nahavand
644 : Caliph Omar assassinated by Aby Lulu and is succeeded by Osman
651 : Yazdgerd III, the last Sassanid king, in murdered
656 : Caliph Osman is assassinated in Medina, and is succeeded by Mohammad's cousin and son in law, Ali.
661 : Imam Ali is assassinated in Kufa
661-750 : Umayyad Caliphate, ruling from Damascus
680  : Imam Hussein, Imam Ali's son, is killed in Karbala
696  : Arabic becomes the official language of the Islamic world
744-749 : Shiite revolt let by Abu Moslem result is establishing the Abbasid Caliphate
750-1258 : Abbasid Caliphate, ruling from Baghdad
777-780 : The liveration movement of Al-Moqanna
786-809 : The caliphate of Harun al-Rashid
816-838 : The liberation movement of Babak Khorramdin
817 : The 8th Shiite Imam, Reza, dies of suspected poisoning and is buried in Mashhad
820-873 : Rule of the Taherian dynasty in Khorasan
859-940 : The life of Rudaki, the first major poetof the Modern Persian Langauge
867-903 : The rule of the Saffarid dynasty in Sistan
875-999 : The rule of the Samanid dynasty in Khorasan
928-1077 : The rule of the Ziarid dynasty
945-1055 : The Buyid rule
950-1020 : The life of the poet, Ferdowsi, author of the epic Shahnameh




The Muslim Arabs who toppled the Sasanid Empire were inspired by a new religion Islam. Although the Ko-ran, the holy book of the new religion, considered people equal regardless their race and social status, the con-querors, especially the Umayyads (the Muslim rulers who succeeded the Prophet Mohammad), tended to stress the primacy of Arabs. Despite this, the Iranians rapidly integrated into the new Islamic community. They began to contribute significantly to all branches of Islamic learning and to play an important role in the econom-ic and even political life of the new Muslim Empire. The new caliph came to power due to the Iranian military leader called Abu Moslem, who led the armies of Saffah against the last of the Umayyad caliphs. Saffah was a great-grandson of Abbas, Prophet Mohammad's uncle, so he called his dynasty the Abbasids. The Abbasid dynasty was the most famous in the Islamic world. Abbasid caliphs were the generous patrons of Islamic culture and arts. However, despite the outstanding progress achieved in the cultural field, the military problems of the empire and its administrative organization were left unsolved. Moreover, Iranians who gladly accepted Islam, which freed them from the dictates of the taboo-ridden and exces-sively ritualized Zoroastrianism, could not bear invaders in their homeland. Numerous rebellions took the form of peasant revolts in Azerbaijan and Khorasan. Soon the first Iranian dynasties threatened the Abbasid empire with dreams of Iranian independence. Purely Iranian states were formed in the main part of Iranian territory (Tahirids in Khorasan with Nishapur as the capital, Saffarids in Sistan, Samanids in wealthy Transoxanian and east Khorasanian cities, Ziarids in Tabarestan, and Gorgans and Buyids all over Iran excluding the Samanid properties). The Buyids shared with the Samanids the fame for having brought to fruition the Iranian renaissance. Although the caliphate held no appeal for the Buyids, who were Shiites, they retained it as a stabilizing factor for the Muslims. Until its final days, the caliphate remained under Iranian influence. Within two centuries after the advent of Islam in Iran, Iranian civilization had completely revived, and man-aged to produce new patterns of art and thought.

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