Ghaznavid Dynasty (962-1186) 17/10/2018




962-1186  : The Ghaznavid dynasty in Iran
967-1049 : The life of Abu Said Abilkheir, the celeberted Persian mystic
971-1030 : The rule of Mahmud Ghaznavid
973-1048 : The life of Biruni, rhw Persian astronomer and astrologer
980-1037 : The life of Ibn Sina (Avicenna), the Iranian physician and philosopher
1037 : Seljuk Turks invade Persia under Toghrol Beik
1055 : Toghrol Beik ends the Buyid rule, and makes himself temporal master of the caliph
1058-1111 : The life of Abu Hamed Ghazali, the Persian philosopher and mystic
1048-1123 : The life of Omar Khayyam, great mathematician, poet and astronomer
1092 : Nezam-ol-Molk and Maleh Shah Seljuk are assassinated by the Ismailies
1090-1257 : Ismailite movement in Iran
1095-1270 : Crusades
1130 : The world's first travel book is written about travel to the Camino de Santiago in northern Spain
1140-1209 : The life of Nezami, the famouse Persian lyric poet
1157-1221 : Kharzamshahi Dynasty
1184-1291 : The life of Saadi, great Persian lyric poet
 


Parthian Empire Territories


The Ghaznavid dynasty was of Turkish origin. It was founded by Saboktekin, a former Turkish slave who was recognized by the Samanids as governor of Ghazna (modern Ghazni, in Afghanistan). As the Samanid dynasty weakened, Saboktekin consolidated his position and expanded his domains as far as the Indian border. His son Mahmud continued the expansion-ist policy, and during his reign, Ghaznavid power reached its zenith, Mahmud created an empire that stretched from the Oxus to the Indian Ocean. In the west he captured (from the Buyids) the Iranian cities of Rey, Esfahan, and Hamadan. Mahmud went to great pains to spread Islam in India, till Muslims were found all over this country. Although the Ghaznavids were proud of their Turkic descent, Mahmud encouraged the use of Persian, and the greatest Persian epic, Shah-Nameh, was completed by Ferdowsi at his court. Among the other great Persians at Mahmud's court were Biruni, an outstanding scholar of encyclopedic knowledge, and Abolfazl Beyhaqi, the writer of a remarkable history of the Ghaznavids, the first major prose work in New Persian. Mahmud's son, Masud I, could not keep the integ-rity of the empire. Challenged by Seljuk Turks, he lost most of his territories, but retained possession of eastern Afghanistan and northern India, where the Ghaznavids continued to rule until 1186.

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