Pahlavi Dynasty (1925-1979) and the Islamic Republic 17/10/2018




1925 : Reza Khan is crowned as the first Pahlavi Shah
1934 : Hitler becomes Fuehrer of Germany
1935  : Western Countries are required to call the country "Iran" and not "Persia"
1939-1945 : World War II
1941 : Britain and the USSR invade Iran and send Reza Shah into exile
1941 : Mohammad Reza Shah ascends the throne
1943 : Tehran Conference of Rosevelt, Churchil, and Stalin
1944 : Reza Shah dies in exile
1951 : Dr. Mohammad Mosadeq becomes Prime Minister ; Nationalization of oil from British control
1953 : British Intelligence and the CIA sponsor a coup d'etat to topple Dr. Mossadeq's government
1962-1963 : Beginning of the reform programs known as the White Revolution
1971 : Shah holds in Persepolis an extravagant celebration of 2500 years of Persian monarchy
1976 : Shah introduces the "imperial" calendar, the starting point of which was the year 558 BC (The nexr year it was abolished and the Islamic calendar was resotored)
1979 : General uprising of disconent 
16 Jan. 1979 : Shah leaves Iran
1 Feb. 1979 : Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran
1 Apr. 1979 : The national referandum declares the Islamic Republic
3 Nov. 1979 : The republic's first Prime Minister, Mahdi Bazargan resigns
25 Jan. 1979 : Abolhasan Banisadr is elected as president
1980-1988 : Iran-Iraq war
24 Jul. 1981 : Mohammad Ali Rajai is elected president
30 Aug. 1981 : President Rajai is killed in a bombing
1981 : Mohammad Reza Shah dies in Egypt
12 Oct. 1981 : Hojjat-ol-Islam Seyed Ali Khamenei is elected president
3 Jun. 1989 : Ayatollah Khomeini's death
28 Jul. 1989 : Ayatollah Khamenei becomes suprer leader ; Rafsanjani is elected as president
23 May 1997 : Hojjat-ol-Islam Mohammad Khatami is elected as president
24 Jun. 2005 : Mahmud Ahmadinejad is elected as president
15 Jun. 2013 : Hojat-ol-Islam Hassan Rohani is elected as president
19 May 2017 : Hojat-ol-Islam Hassan Rohani is reelected as president


During the reign of Reza Shah, a number of reforms were attempted to lay the basis of a modern state. Reza Shah initially enjoyed wide support, but some of his actions, such as taking away effective power from the Parliament, muzzling the press, and killing or exiling many of his former followers as well as of the influential religious clerics, soon led to considerable dissatis-faction in the country. His support of Hitler's Germany in WWII occasioned an Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. Reza Shah was forced to resign in favor of his son Mohammad Reza, and then he was exiled to an island off the coast of Africa. Mohammad Reza Shah faced the difficult task of exercising his power over the large country. During his rule, his main initiatives included the land reform and the campaign against illiteracy. The country's power structure was also radically changed as part of the program called the "White Revolution". Soon after the war, the Majles passed an act, introduced by the Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddeq, national-izing Iranian oil, and the British oil company withdrew. Mosaddeq's government, however, was brought down in the coup d'etat, staged on the American-British initiative. Many of Mohammad Reza Shah's policies had often been opposed by influential clerical leaders. The arrest of Ayatollah Khomeini touched off widespread riot-ing. The riots were suppressed by force, and Aya-tollah Khomeini was exiled, first to Turkey and then to Iraq and France. From there, he coordinated an upsurge of opposition, demanding the shah's abdica-tion. Fifteen days before Ayatollah Khomeini's return, the shah fled Iran. The Regency and Supreme Army Councils, which were established to govern in the shah's absence, proved unable to function, and the government headed by the Prime Minister, Shahpur Bakhtiyar, could not control the country. Crowds of more than 1,000,000 demonstrated in Tehran in sup-port of Ayatollah Khomeini. The Islamic Revolution and the national referendum that followed it proclaimed the foundation of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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