Pahlevāni and zoorkhāneh rituals is the name inscribed by UNESCO for varzesh-e pahlavāni, a traditional system of athletics originally used to train warriors in Iran (Persia) and adjacent lands. It combines martial arts, calisthenics, strength training and music. Recognized by UNESCO as the world's longest-running form of such training, it fuses elements of pre-Islamic Persian culture (particularly Zoroastrianism, Mithrāism and Gnosticism) with the spirituality of Shia Islam and Sufism. Practiced in a domed structure called the zurkhāneh, training sessions consist mainly of ritual gymnastic movements and climax with the core of combat practice, a form of submission-grappling called koshti pahlavāni.
The traditional gymnasium in which varzesh-e bastani is practiced is known as the zurkhaneh (also spelled zoorkhāneh and zourkhāneh), literally the "house of strength". These gyms are covered structures with a single opening in the ceiling, with a sunken 1m-deep octagonal or circular pit in the center (gaud). Around the gaud is a section for the audience, one for the musicians, and one for the athletes. A portrait of Ali is hung on the wall of every zurkhāneh. An aspiring member may be a male from any social class or religion, but they must first spend at least a month watching from the audience before they can join. Traditionally, the zurkhānehs demanded no payment from their athletes, and depended instead on public donations. In return, the zurkhāneh provided community services and protection. One example is the "casting of flowers" ceremony in which athletes held koshti matches and other displays of strength to raise funds for the needy. There are today 500 zurkhaneh in Iran and each has strong ties to their local community. Zurkhanehs have commonly had strong political affiliations, either advocating or denouncing particular governments. This type of sports diplomacy is said to be a natural extension of the patriotic nature of zurkhāneh training dating back to the days when pahlevans served in the king's court.